Armenian highland was inhabited since the immemorial times.
Due to its rich mineral resources Armenia became a metallurgical center. At the bronze age class relations and tribal unions were formed among the tribes of the Armenian tableland. One of the first united Armenian country was Urartu or The Kingdom of Van.
was formed in the 9th century BC. In the 9-8 centuries BC the Kingdom of Van significantly expanded its borders becoming one of the most powerful states in Western Asia under Menuas, Argistis and Sardur II. However the Kingdom of Van falls in the 7-6 centuries.
In the 6th century BC, Armenian king was Scythian leader Paruir. After his death the country was united into one kingdom only under Eruandid royal dynasty in the face of king Aramani. During the reign of Eruandids, the capital was moved to Ervandashat. Armenian Eruandid kings continued to rule in Armenia, sometimes combining the office of the Persian satraps or being under their domination, but after the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great at the battle of Gaugamela, Armenia regained its independence
The founder of the Artashesids dynasty was Artaxias I (189-160 BC). He succeeded in merging the borders of Greater Armenia (except Tsopk). The borders merging of Great Armenia was finalized. During the reign of Tigran The Great. The kingdom of Greater Armenia became a powerful empire of Western Asia, reaching the zenith of its political power, it was bordering Caspian, Black and Mediterranean Seas and thus was called .
After the defeat of the Romans at the battle of Randi (62 AD), Tiridates I went to Rome, was crowned by Emperor Nero and returned to Armenia (65-66 AD). He founded Armenian Arshakids dynasty. In 301, under Tiridates III (286-330) Armenia became the first country that proclaimed Christianity as a state religion.
The next important historical event during the rule time of Arshakids was the Armenian alphabet invention in 405.